René Descartes' illustration of brain anatomy and physiology.
Neurochemistry inputs are passed on by the sensory organs to the pineal gland in the brain and from there to the motor nerves. At the pineal gland, the nerve processes affect the mind, an immaterial spirit, in accordance with Descartes' mind/body Dualism. The mind can also affect the pineal gland, thereby directing the processes of the motor nerves. From Descartes (1664).
The body/brain problem can be stated as, "What is the basic relationship between the mental and the physical?" For the sake of simplicity, we can state the problem in terms of mental and physical events: "What is the basic relationship between mental events and physical events?" It could also be stated in terms of the relation between mental and physical states and/or processes, or between the brain and consciousness.
There are three basic metaphysical positions: mental and physical events are totally different, and cannot be reduced to each other (Dualism); mental events are to be reduced to physical events (Materialism); and physical events are to be reduced to mental events (Idealism). To put it in terms of what exists "ultimately," we could say that according to Dualism, both mental and physical events exist ultimately; according to Materialism, only physical events exist ultimately; and according to Idealism, only mental events exist ultimately. Materialism and Idealism are both varieties of monism, and of monism, there are two further varieties, namely dual-aspect monism and neutral monism.
Mental and physical of Idealism and Materialism have junctions and can be reduced to a Psychosocial Charka energy junction. In theory, these give Psychosocial body language points in the body that is a mentalism of hearing voices in the head via the Throat Chakra. That junction is the muscles and this can be seen via meditation exercises and physical exercises. In a marathon runner, the mental (Idealism) takes over the normal functions of the Materialism. This is Dualism of mental health illness of a Core Identity Psychosocial mentalism.
The same is true of Tardif Dyskinesia brought on by medicament. This is so because the state of the facial muscles causes a dysfunction that is Idealism of the cranial nerves. These affect the brain via conscious muscle actions of both the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. It is a direct cause of the Psychosocial peripheral mental and sublime physical states and processes between the brain and consciousness. In mental health, Tardive Dyskinesia in the vagus nerve from a medication affects the thought processes that can be considered as mental and physical simply because the vagus nerve is a direct thoughtfulness in the mind/body barrier. This is because the vagus nerve in the Medulla Oblongata in the brain has a direct function. And that is towards the Throat Chakra and inner voice box of the physical thought processes. So I say this is a junction in the mind/body barrier where both Materialism and Idealism have physical properties due to substances of the mind causing physical properties. It is much like reading the newspaper or thinking about a future appointment. These are actions of the: mental health issue caused by medicament and is known as Tardive (Tardif) Dyskinesia. This affects the vagus nerve via facial muscles and cranial nerves that have direct access to the Medulla Oblongata. It can also affect the physical Core Identity in the brain region of the glossopharyngeal nerve, also in the Medulla Oblongata. This nerve could be seen by Descartes as Idealism of spiritual and leads to the Asian Scripture of the 0-7 Chakras.
Dualism is the idea that the mental and the physical are two completely different kinds of things. In more technical language, Dualism holds that mind and body are distinct types of substance, where a substance is a type of thing or entity that can exist on its own Core Identity, independently of other types of Psychosocial entities. In traditional ontology, substances are the ultimate bearers of properties. They can be explained by their essential properties. Those properties are what makes them be the kind of thing that they are. The essential properties of mind would thus be the mental properties, whichever they are (eg, conscious states, states that are inherently representational, or however the mental is explained). Body or matter would have as its essential properties the physical or material properties, whichever they are (e.g., spatial extension, mass, force, or however the physical or the material is explained). Psychosocial also explains essential properties. Psychosocial properties involved in the homeostatic equilibrium of a Setting and Psychosocial Performance of Chakra energy’s. This is where someone reading the Symbolic Data of the newspaper via: the vagus nerve and the mental health patient nearby mumbling via; the Glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve is also a cranial nerve and that leads to the inner voice box as well as the vagus nerve. These nerves controlling Speech and thoughtfulness are in the back of the Throat where mental health tests should start.
Within Western Philosophy, the first major proponent of Dualism was Plato. Plato put forward a theory that the most basic realities are Forms or abstract types, a theory known as Platonic Idealism. But he also held that mind and body are distinct. Subsequent Platonists, such as Augustine of Hippo, adopted this position.
The most famous adherent of Dualism was Descartes, who proposed a type of Dualism that has come to be known as Cartesian Dualism or Interaction Dualism. Cartesian Dualism is the idea that mind and body are two fundamentally different types of things, but that they can interact in the brain. Physical events can cause mental events—for example, the physical act of hitting your hand with a hammer can cause nerve processes that affect the mind and produce the experience of pain. Conversely, mental events can cause physical events—for example, the mental decision to speak can cause nerve processes that make your tongue move.
A dualistic philosophy, by definition, recognizes the existence of both mind and body. In Descartes' philosophy, the body plays an important role in psychological functions. This is most clearly seen in his theory of the passions, which is a "body-first" theory. That means that bodily mechanisms condition which passion or emotion a human being will feel in given circumstances. These bodily mechanisms direct the person's response to the situation: a flight from a frightful animal, embrace of a friendly companion. The mind's role is then to continue or to redirect the response that has begun with the body.
In the twentieth century, some interpreters concluded that Descartes' philosophy leads one to consider the corporeal as of little value and trivial. A rejection of this type of view of the body/brain relation is found in French Structuralism and is a position that generally characterized post-war French philosophy.
Epiphenomenalism can be another type of Dualism if the epiphenomenalism holds that mind and body are two fundamentally different types of things. This substance epiphenomenalism agrees with Cartesian Dualism in saying that physical causes can give rise to mental events-- the physical act of hitting your hand with a hammer will create the mental experience of pain. Unlike Cartesian Dualism, epiphenomenalism argues that mental events cannot under any circumstances give rise to physical effects. So, if my hand touches fire, the physical heat can cause the mental sensation of pain, and my hand instantly recoils. It might appear that the mental experience of pain caused the physical event of the hand pulling back. According to Epiphenomenalism, this is an illusion—in reality, the physical heat directly caused the recoiling of the hand through nerve processes, and these same processes also cause the sensation of the pain. The mental events are caused by physical events, but they cannot themselves have any affect on matter.
Parallelism, as a form of Dualism, argues that mental and physical events occur in separate domains and constitute two fundamentally different types of things that can never interact in any way. This view admits that physical events appear to cause mental effects (hitting your hand with a hammer appears to cause pain) and that mental events appear to cause physical effects (deciding to speak appears to cause your tongue to move). Parallelism, however, holds that this correspondence between the mental world and the physical world is simply a correlation, not the result of causation. The nerve processes caused by the hammer form a close looped that cause your hand to draw back. A separate chain of mental events run in parallel; you see the hammer hit your hand, and you subsequently feel pain. In this view, the mental world and the physical world are parallel, but separate, never directly interacting.
Idealism is the view that physical objects, properties, events (whatever is described as physical) are reducible to mental objects, properties, events. Ultimately, only mental objects exist. According to Idealism, the material world is not unlike a dream. When you have a vivid dream, you find yourself in a dream world that appears to be composed of material objects. In reality, however, everything in your dream world is a creation of your dream. If you dream you are riding a bicycle, the bicycle certainly feels real. In reality, however, the bicycle does not have an independent existence outside of your own mind. When you awaken, the bicycle might cease to be. Idealism holds that the entire "real world" of our waking lives is fundamentally a mental creation. Only minds and their experiences exist.
The best-known idealist is the eighteenth-century Irish philosopher George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne. Berkeley argued that the notion of material substance is incoherent. As a consequence of his argument, he concluded that only minds and their internal states, or "ideas," exist. He granted the existence of human minds and of a divine mind or God. According to Berkeley, all the ideas in the human mind are produced by God. Sensory ideas are produced in the form of a coherent view of what appears to be a physical reality. But, he maintained, these sensory ideas, in fact, have only mental existence. All the shapes and colors that we experience exist only in the mind. Berkeley is responsible for the philosophical chestnut, "if a tree falls in the forest and no one is there, does it produce a sound?" He answered that it does, because of the infinite mind, God, is aware of the tree and its sound.
Materialism and mental health
The brain works with the nervous system to keep our body functioning. There are many conditions that can affect our brains and as a result how we function in the Psychosocial society. They can range from injuries and diseases that create physical problems to chemical imbalances in the body/brain barrier that result in mental health issues. I see the main area of chemical imbalances in Paranoia and Anxiety issues is from the Parasympathetic nerve and the Parasympathetic nerve.
To explain how it is that the CNS is related to mental health - the CNS is the brain and spinal cord and in those who have mental health issues - the body/brain barrier has chemical imbalances - which affects everything - our entire bodies - it affects all of our senses – everything.
First of all - we have different nervous systems that regulate and control different things - one of which is the mind and the way we think, function, interpret things, move, etc.
The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists of all the other nerves and neurons that do not function within the CNS. The large majority of what are commonly called nerves are considered to be PNS. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the Somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The Somatic nervous system is responsible for coordinating the body's movements, and also for receiving external stimuli. It is the system that regulates activities that are under conscious control. It also controls Psychosocial external stimuli that are partially influenced by people we communicate with consciously. It is Idealism that controls the autonomic system and the Somatic is Materialism. These two terms are much discussed by the Psychologist Descartes.
The autonomic nervous system is then divided into the Sympathetic division, Parasympathetic division, and enteric division. The Sympathetic nervous system responds to impending danger or stress, and is responsible for the increase of one's heartbeat and blood pressure, among other physiological changes in the body, along with the feelings of excitement that one feels due to the increase of Noradrenaline in the system. It also causes Anxiety Disorders. The Parasympathetic nerve is in Harmony when a person is resting and feels relaxed, and is responsible for such things as the constriction of the pupil, the slowing of the heart into panic attacks and Paranoia, dilation of the blood vessels, and stimulation of digestive and genitourinary systems.
I say both the brain and body are Materialism in the Psychosocial Peripheral nervous system of mental health. This is where the Somatic nervous system controls body language of the thought centres in the Chakra energies. And this is what gives schizophrenia and other sublime issues with thoughtfulness like Anxiety Disorders because silent meditation cannot be achieved via a Chakra imbalance with the inner voice box.